Samuel Rutherford (c 1600-1661)
Samuel Rutherford (c 1600-1661)
Church of Scotland minister and political theorist
Samuel Rutherford graduated from the University of Edinburgh and was appointed Regent of Humanity there in 1623 - a position he lost following a scandal over an illegitimate child. He was invited to be minister at Anwoth, Kirkcudbrightshire, where he campaigned for the Presbyterian cause. These non-conformist activities led to a summons before the High Commission in Edinburgh and in 1636 he was sentenced to be confined to Aberdeen. There 'the banished minister' kept in contact with leading covenanters. The National Covenant was signed in 1638, he was exonerated and agreed to become Professor of Divinity at New College, St Andrews. He was also a Scottish Commissioner to the Westminster Assembly of Divines. Following the Restoration copies of his book, 'Lex Rex', were burnt and he was cited for treason. He died after a short illness and was buried in St Andrews Cathedral's graveyard. His letters were published posthumously in English and in Dutch, and he became known as the ‘Saint of the Covenant’.
Birth of daughter in 1626
Maister Samuel Rutherfoorde, Euphame Hamiltoun a daughter named (a d n) Marie. The entry in the Old Parish Register (OPR) for Edinburgh records the witnesses (w) as Messrs Andrew Stevinsones, David Gourlay, Johnne Skeene and Andrew Balfour. Marie is the unborn child referred to in the burgh records of Edinburgh, February 1626, which led to Samuel Rutherford losing his university post. No entries for his first marriage, the births of any other children or their deaths have been traced in the Old Parish Registers. All are thought to have died before the end of 1630.
Baptism entry for Samuel Rutherford's daughter (36 KB jpeg)
National Records of Scotland, OPR 685-1/3, page 70
Second marriage in 1640
There are two entries for this marriage. The first in the Old Parish Register for St Andrews and St Leonards (his parish) is dated Sunday night 2 March for Mayster Samuell Rutherfurde, Minister and Maister of the New College in this city. It refers to his contract of marriage with Jeane Mackmath in Edinburgh (edr) being proclaimed for the first time this day.
Proclamation of banns entry for Samuel Rutherford (47 KB jpeg)
National Records of Scotland, OPR 453/5
The second entry in the Old Parish Register for Edinburgh (her parish) just gives their names. Mr Samuel Rutherfoord : Jean Makmath. It is headed 'No marriage qll the 24 of March'. 'qll’ is an abbreviated form of ‘quhill(e)’ meaning until.
Marriage entry for Samuel Rutherford (30 KB jpeg)
National Records of Scotland, OPR 685-1/43
Testament of 1661
The Testamentum testamentarium of Mr Samuel[is] Rutherfurd was registered at St Andrews Commissary Court on 22 November 1661. Testament testamentar means he left a will. There was also an inventory (inventar) of his goods, geir and debts. His death or burial hasn't been traced in the Old Parish Registers but the introductory clause of the testament (see below) provides some details. Mr Samuel Rutherfurd, Principal of the New College of St Andrews within the parish thereof in the Sheriffdom of Fife, who departed (depairted) this life in the month of March 1661 (jaj vj C thrie scoir ane years). It also records that the documents had been faithfully made and given up by Jean Mackmath, his relict spous (widow) and executrix (female executor) testamentar nominat.
Detail from the testament of Samuel Rutherford (95 KB jpeg)
National Records of Scotland, CC20/4/12
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